Main topic information
The waterproofing materials used today are:
- Bitumen waterproofing materials
- Epoxy waterproofing materials
- Cement waterproofing materials
- Rubber waterproofing materials
- Siloxane waterproofing materials
Bitumen Waterproofing Materials
Bitumen, which is a hydrocarbon compound, is naturally found in solid or liquid form, and today it is obtained from crude oil. Bituminous materials consist of organic materials in black color and resin character. Day to water. It is used as a waterproofing material due to its water resistant and insulating features.
Bitumen Material Types:
- Natural asphalts
- Petroleum asphalts
Mixing bitumen with natural or artificial mineral fillers is called asphalt. The chemical structure of asphalt is 75-80% C (Carbon), 7-12% H (Hydrogen), 0-1% N (Nitrogen), 1-7% S (Sulfur) and 0, -5% O (Oxygen). Asphalts with high carbon and hydrogen content are classified as quality asphalt. If the C / H ratio is greater than 0.8, asphaltin occurs, if it is between 0.4 – 0.8, resin, if it is less than 0.4, oils are formed.
Epoxy Waterproofing Materials
The name Epoxy is a combination of the Greek words Epi (On) and Oxy (Sharp / acidic). Epoxy is an adhesive chemical resin and is highly resistant to acid alkali external factorsIt can be used as surface coating and paint primer material, as well as can be used in gap repairs thanks to its adhesion feature. Epoxy is generally two-component. Binder and hardener are formed by the reaction of two different chemicals. Its abrasion and tensile strength is very good. It is highly resistant to acids and alkalis. It is not affected by temperature differences and its shrinkage and expansion values are low. It can be used wherever high strength is required.
Figure 2: Epoxy based waterproofing application
Cement Waterproofing Material
Cement is produced by grinding the clinker obtained by firing limestone and clay in kilns at high temperatures such as 1400-1600 ° C.
It is a cement binding material. The bonding of cement occurs after it reacts with waterTherefore, it is in the class of hydraulic binders. The materials needed in cement production are obtained from their natural environment. After sieving and grinding processes, they are rendered to the appropriate size and storedThe material obtained is powdered and mixed in accordance with the character of the cement to be produced. This mixture is called “raw meal”. The raw meal, which is cooked at an average of 1500 ° C in a rotary oven after the preheating process, becomes liquid as it leaves the oven. The fine powdered pieces of raw meal combine to form larger clinker grains. These clinker grains are stored by rapidly lowering to 100 ° C. Cement is obtained by grinding the clinker in ball mills with additives such as pozzolana, limestone, fly ash depending on the gypsum and cement type.
The main types of cement are:
- Portland Cement
- Blast Furnace Slag Cement
- Trass Cement
- Blended Cement:
In addition to these, there are cement types such as Fly Ash Cement, Super Sulphate Cement, Sulphate Resistant Cement, High Early Strength Cement and Low Hydration Heat Cement. Cement’s most common use as a binder is in the production of concrete where it is used together with aggregateHowever, it can also be used as an insulation material against negative and positive water pressure. The compound obtained by mixing cement with microfibers, polymers or minerals is used in waterproofing as insulation materials, especially because of its good adhesion to concrete surfaces.
Siloxane Waterproofing Materials
The word silicon refers to a chemical bond in the form of Si-O-Si. In other words, the bond made by silicon atoms with oxygen is called silicon. The superior features of silicone have made it an indispensable raw material in the industry. Properties such as adhesion to various surfaces, flexibility and durability have made it one of the structural components of many products in the construction industry. Depending on the quality expected from the product, many properties such as the flexibility of the silicone, heat resistance, UV permeability can be adjusted at the desired level. With these features, they are used in many production areas such as the construction industry, paint and varnish industry, textile industry, adhesive production, electronics and electrotechnical industry, plastic and rubber processing.
Can be used for surface insulation. In this way, the hardness and life of the surface, its resistance to moisture and chemicals increase, it is protected against UV rays and its carbon dioxide and oxygen permeability decreaseHydrophobic is the most important insulating property of silicone in water and moisture insulation. In other words, silicone not only provides water insulation but also repels water. When this feature combined with its transparent production, enables absorbent surfaces to be coated without damaging the pattern appearance.It is especially used in places where surface protection is important, such as historical artifacts.
Acyrlic Waterproofing Materials
The general name of plastic, resin and oils obtained by synthesis is acrylic. It is possible to produce acrylics with different physical properties such as color, transparency and hardness. Although acrylic products are generally produced by shaping in molds, they can also be used in liquid form. Plexiglass is the most known acrylic product. Many paint products contain acrylic resins. It provides easy drying and homogeneous viscosity properties. It is preferred because it can be diluted with water. In addition, it has the widest usage area in the textile industry. Acrylic is also used in waterproofing. In order to increase the binding and adhesion properties, it can be included in the applied substance as a component in liquid-based applications. There are types that are resistant to UV rays and not. It can be used in wet areas, terraces etcCapable of being thinned with water enables it to be used in the production of water-based insulation materials. It is recommended to apply with carrier reinforcement on very cracked surfaces. The obtained insulation material can be used together with other carrier materials such as microfibers when necessary. In this way, products that can carry tensile stress more easily are provided. Acrylic materials remain elastic after curing.
Polymers Waterproofing Materials
Large molecules formed by bonding of many atoms to each other are called polymers. They are obtained naturally, semi-synthetic and synthetic. Examples of natural polymers include rubber, cellulose or even DNA. Polymers are generally synthetically produced and originated from petroleum. Polystyrene and polyethylene are the most known synthetic products. In addition, synthetic forms such as PET (Polyethylene terephthalate), LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene), HDPE (High Density Polyethylene), PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), PP (Polypropylene), PS (Polystyrene) and Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) are also used in water bottles are available. Polymers find a wide usage area in the insulation sector due to their high strength properties. In waterproofing, products that are modified with bitumen or silicon are frequently encountered. If they are used as waterproofing materials with fiber reinforcement, they can also offer solutions on discontinuous surfaces such as cracks.
Figure 3: Membrane Waterproofing Application
Bitumen-based membrane materials
Polymer bituminous covers can be produced as;
- Polyethylene coated on both sides
- Both sides covered with fine sand
- One side is polyethylene and the other is fine sand covered
- One side is polyethylene and one side is mineral coverd
- One side is fine sand and the other is mineral covered
- One side is polyethylene and one side is metal foil covered
- One side is fine sand and one side is metal foil covered.
PVC cover membranes are products that are produced with a thickness of 1-2 mm, combined with hot air welding as overlapped and cover the surfaces by laying methodThey are used in many areas from terrace roofs to parapet insulation, especially in areas such as ponds, canalettes, where special solutions are required. Their long life, UV resistance and not being affected by plant roots features are the main reasons for usage. PVC membranes are applied in one layer. They are bonded by welding with high temperature air blowing tools. They have strong mechanical strength and have vapor permeability properties.- They can insulate between -30 ° C and 85 ° C without any problem. They can be applied with or without a carrier felt. However, in applications such as ponds, it should be used with geotextile felt to meet tensile stresses and to cut the product directly from the ground. It is possible to attach them to the floor that will be insulated with mechanical mounting devices such as pressure strips, rawlplug. Polyester felt and glass woven carrier products show tensile strength up to 2-2.5 times compared to fiberglass carriers. On the other hand, polyester carrier products can elongate about 10 times of glass woven carriers.
EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), an artificial rubber type, rapidly increases its market share with its superior qualities in waterproofing. It does not lose its insulation and elasticity between -40 ° C – 140 ° C. It is also resistant to UV and ozone effects.
Waterproofing of the surface with sliding-based applications is the basic and oldest method. The fact that the method is easy and can be applied by everyone has provided diversity in liquid membrane production. Although solvent-based products are available, they are generally produced on a water-based basis. Water-based waterproofing materials are more suitable for both ease of application and environmental health. Liquid membranes are either applied directly or diluted with water to the consistency of application and applied to the desired surface. The product becomes waterproof as a result of the evaporation of the water insideLiquid membranes can be produced with all known waterproofing materials. It is generally available in commercial forms with two or more components. They are named acrylic-cement-based, bitumen-rubber-based or bitumen-based, as one or more of the products such as acrylic, cement, bitumen and rubber are present together in their structures. Liquid membranes may not give the desired result on moving and insufficiently strong floors. In cases where tensile stress accumulates on the material such as high water pressure or a crack progressing on the surface, it will be correct to use the products with carrier felts. For weaker stresses, micro-fiber reinforced liquid membranes should be preferred. These small microfiber particles will increase the tensile and tear resistance by absorbing the stresses in the drying material.
Spray membrane technique emerges as another form of liquid membrane application. The insulation coating is generally formed by spraying two-component waterproofing materials onto the surface with a high-temperature pressurized pump.
Heating is necessary for the reaction of the components as well as for increasing the viscosity of the resulting fluid. The flow rate and pressure of the fluid pressurized by a pump are also provided by the valves on the machine. If the ratio of the compounds in the component to be obtained is not the same, the amount of chemical to be taken from the reservoirs can be adjusted separately. Spray applications are the fastest insulation applications. It has the ability to cover without being affected by the surface is porous, indented, angular, etc. It does not create joints like cover membranes. It is continuous and adheres better as it is sprayed onto the surface under pressure. The application thickness can be adjusted more easily compared to the sliding based ones. This adjustment can be made by changing the spraying distance as well as by applying the additional 2nd or 3rd layer.